Specializations of Anatomy & Physiology


Physiology is a field of knowledge that deals in the study of functioning of living things. This is in respect to the discipline of science. This study is usually about organisms and the functioning of their organs. The study also focuses on functioning of cells such as biochemical processes that take place in the cells. The study is broken down into sub groups such as physiology of plants, physiology of cells, physiology of virus, physiology of bacteria and the physiology of animals including human being. Human physiology is the earliest study in the field of physiology and most probably, it began in India. According to history, the field of physiology was developed by fields such as Cell theory, Ecophysiology, Evolutionary physiology and Comparative physiology which were the works of scientists such as George Bartholomew and Walter Cannon.

Histology
This is the study of cell anatomy of both plants and animals. Histology is done by observing cell structures by use of a powerful microscope such as an Electron Microscope. The common method used to carry out the study is known as Tissue Culture. In this method, a cell, which is alive, is segregated and kept in a favorable environment for research purposes.
Historadiography is a radioactive procedure for examining samples of histology. Radioactive substances can be located in the body by use of Autoradiography technique. Therefore, histology is significant in medicine. In cases such as treatment of cancer, histopathology can be used to analyze the samples of histology. Medical personnel who carry out histopathology should be physicians who have been certified by medical boards to be qualified pathologists. 

Cytology
This is a branch of science particularly in pathology that deals with study of cells especially cell structure and functions. The study focuses on diagnosing a disease (s) by analysis of body tissues. Body tissues include fluids from the body such as blood and urine. A pathologist is someone who has vast knowledge in cytology. Powerful microscopes such as the Electron Microscope is used in examination of the cells. The material containing the cells to be examined is placed on glass sides which are then mounted on the stage of the microscope.

Neurophysiology 
This is a branch of life science in the field of physiology that deals with the study of working of the nervous system. Neurophysiology mostly focuses on the science of the brain. The study is associated with other sciences such as neurobiology, neurology, biophysics, neuroanatomy and psychology. The basis of the study include; molecular biology, calcium imaging and patch clamp.

Gross (macroscopic) anatomy
This scientific field deals with analysis of body parts of living organisms. The study involves observation of the body parts by use of naked eyes. There are different methods used to study gross anatomy such as Dissection, examining real body parts of an animal, and Endoscopy, where a powerful digital camera helps reveal minute structures. There are two methods used to study Gross (macroscopic) anatomy. The methods are Invasive and non-invasive and have the main aim of understanding both the way organs have been organized and the structure of the organs and system of the organs.

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What Is Physiology


Physiology is the science that explains how the bodies of living things function. It focuses on how the organs, cells and other components of the body carry out different physical and chemical functions in living things. It also involves how different organs work together to achieve the overall functionality of the body, plant or any other living organism. In simple language physiology is the science of life. Physiology is divided into animal, plants, cellular, microbial, bacterial and viral physiology.

Any living organism has a structure either consisting of either single or multiple components. There are organisms that are made up of only one cell and are called single celled organisms. This cell does not need any other to survive thus performs all functions on its own. These organisms include bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae and archaea. They are neither animals nor plants.

Other organisms have a structure with multiple components. The following is the order of the components from the smallest to the largest; cell, tissue, organ, organ system and finally an organism. A cell is a microscopic living thing that is able to reproduce itself. These cells do not all look the same as they have different structures. There are over 200 types of cells. A cell contains an outer covering layer called the membrane which makes it possible for food to pass through to the cell and waste to be ejected. Cells also contain a nuclear which helps in cell reproduction by splitting into new cells. It also contains mitochondria which is the place oxygen and food combine to release energy. Oxygen is very vital as it helps break down food into smaller particles that can be used by the cell. This process converts the food into energy. Cells have different shapes depending on the work they do. Cells performing similar functions come together to form a tissue.

Tissues include muscles, bones and the skin. Muscles contract and relax to aid in movement. The bones help in supporting the body, protect some internal organs as well as help in motion especially through joints. The skin protects the internal organs from damage, acts as a sensory organ for touch and also regulates heat. When many tissues performing similar functions come together, they form organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, kidney and many more. Each organ performs specific tasks in the body but this is just to contribute to the overall smooth body functions. When the kidney excretes waste and toxins in form of urine, the lungs purify the air and the heart pumps the blood, the legs move, the hands hold and the brain coordinates all these other organs, the body is able to do whatever it is required. Without the heart the other organs are of no use to the body. Similarly when an individual organ is absent, the body is not complete thus some functions cannot be performed successfully. This combination of the various organs is called the organ system. There are different organ systems according to their specialization such as the nervous, skeletal, muscular, circulatory, digestive, reproduction, excretory, endocrine and the immune systems. All the above organ systems communicate effectively to create an organism.

Physiology and anatomy are two different things that confuse a lot of people. Anatomy is the science that tries to show the structures of the organisms. It explains what the structure is while physiology explains what the structure does.

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How Sodium Chloride (SALT) Affects Organizations of Living Systems

Salt also know as sodium chloride is made of containing ions of sodium and chlorine in equal measures. Salt dissolving in water is known for producing cations and ions, thus can conduct electricity efficiently. However since salt is known to be worldwide some aspects of where it is found is discussed below:

Marine life

Marine life is the most significant part as it occupies a large part of the earth, however it is vital for one to know the extend at which salt affects living systems

• Salt water covers 95% of the earth and thus makes the other parts unfit for any human life

• Some marine animals particularly do well only in saline water this including the Artic charr fish and the humpback whale.

• They however take in too much water into their cells when they are moved to fresh water areas and their cells pop.

• They also cannot go into largely concentrated areas with a lot of sodium chloride as they will be dehydrated.

• Areas with lower concentration of salt and a warm temperature have the highest concentration of marine life

• The dolphin being a warm blooded mammal is the one of the few mammals that have moved across many waters since it has the ability to take in the diluted gases which includes oxygen from the concentrated waters.

To human kind

Human kind often is the biggest users of sodium chloride in the world with using items such as salt based non-environmentally friendly ice melters to clear road ways, with capabilities of using up to 35000 tons in each year. However there are good aspects and drawbacks of which both have to be considered.

• Salt is poured on the road side during snow time to assist in ice melt for concrete. This is due to the fact that it lowers the melting point of ice then it can be removed

• It is used as an additive in food to give it taste and make it more pleasurable

• It is known for causing high blood pressure and arthritis in man and those ailing from the diseases are advised to stay away from salt.

To the environment

The environment is usually the most affected part when it comes to salt as it holds up human and animals together.

• Sodium chloride is however used in the treatment of farm animals particularly cattle once they get sick

• However it is usually considered to do harm than good in the instance that it dehydrates the animals and thus they end up dying.

• Sodium chloride that seeps into the environment goes into the ground and kills the trees by cutting its ability to take in water

• It also destroys fields of plantation of foods as it also makes it impossible for the cells to pass food through osmosis.

• High saline concentrated areas are known to have no ice and have a higher temperatures than areas that are less concentrated with the sodium chloride

• Ice concentrated areas are known to have no salt in it as the ice would melt it

• Areas of high temperatures are often accompanied with high concentration of sodium chloride thus areas around the equator are more saline than in the poll areas

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TERMS USED IN ANATOMY

Anatomy is a branch of science that deals with the study of structures and relationship between the parts of the body. Some of the anatomy specialization includes:

· Gross or macroscopic anatomy deals with the study of body organs or part visible to the naked eye. For instance the heart or the bones.

· Histology deals with the study of the tissue at microscopic level.

· Cytology deals with the study of the cells at microscopic level.
 
Terminologies used in Anatomy

· Anatomical terms are used to refer to body in the anatomical position. These anatomical position are facing forward, standing erect, arms down at the side and the palms turned forward. The following terms are used in this position.

· Body planes and sections- are used to describe how the organ or the body is divided into two sections:

· Sagittal planes. It vertically divide the organ or body into right and left parts.if both right and left parts are equal in size, hence the plane is referred as midsagittal plane. If the parts are not equal, the plane is called parasagittal plane.

· Coronal or Front plane this plane vertically divides the organ or body into posterior and anterior parts.

· Transverse or horizontal plane. The plane horizontally divides the organ or body into superior and inferior parts this plane is also referred to as cross-section plane.

· The body cavities. These are completely enfolded areas that house the organs and are organized into two group:
· The posterior or ventral body cavity. It includes the vertebral cavity that contains the brain and the cranial cavity that comprises the spinal cord.

· The anterior or ventral body cavity. This cavity includes the abdominal pelvic cavity (comprises of the bladder and reproductive parts in the pelvic cavity and the digestive organs contained in the abdominal cavity), the thoracic cavity (comprises each lungs on its own pleural cavity and the heart in pericardial cavity).

· Regional terms are used to describe particular body areas. A descriptive word is usually used in some situations to identify the location For instance, appendicullar region. It refers to the appendages i.e. arms and legs. Axial region is used to refer the body main axis that is the head, the neck and the trunk. Some other regional terms identify a specific area of the body by use of a body part. For instance, the nasal region is used to refer to the nose.
 
The basic anatomy terms also known as directional terms are used to describe relative position of one part of the body to another. The directional terms are defined below:

· Superior meaning it is above another organ or structure.
· Inferior means a structure or an organ is below another structure or organ.
· Ventral or anterior means nearer to the front of the body organ or body.
· Lateral maens nearer to the side of the body or body organ.
· Ipsillateral is used to mean on the same side of the of the body organ or body.
· Contralateral is used to refer to the body opposite sides.
· Intermediate means the part is between the two structures or organ.
· Proximal means nearer to attachment point of a limb.
· Distal means further from the attachment point of a limb.
· Superficial means nearer to the body surface.
· Deep means away from the body surface.

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What Is Anatomy


Anatomy refers to the identification and study of the structure of body parts together with the relationship between them. It is a branch of biology and medicine and is composed of human anatomy, plant anatomy (phytotomy) and animal anatomy (zootomy). It is subdivided into two fields, the gross anatomy and the microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy also referred to as macroscopic anatomy involves the study the body parts that are visible to the naked eye such as the bones and the heart whereas microscopic anatomy also known as histology is the study of cells and tissues of living things. Human anatomy is the study of the structures of the human body and it involves both the gross and histology human anatomy.

Anatomy and physiology are distinct fields of study but are often paired. Their distinction is that anatomy involves the study of the body parts of an organism while physiology studies the functioning of the body parts and the body as a whole.

Terminology Used in Anatomy
Identification of areas of the body need to be accurate hence the need for clearly defined anatomic terminologies. The terms are used to refer the body in its anatomical position that is, either facing forward, standing erect, with palms turned forward, or arms down at the side.

Body planes and sections which are used to describe the division of the body or an organ into two parts involve;

· Sagittal planes- this divides the body or an organ into the right and left parts vertically. The plane is referred to as midsagittal if both the right and left parts are equal and parasagittal plane if the parts are unequal.

· Frontal (coronal) plane- this plane will divide the body or organ vertically into vertical rear (posterior) and front (anterior) parts.

· Horizontal (transverse) plane- also referred to as a cross-section, it divides the organ or body horizontally into bottom (inferior) and top (superior) parts.

Organs are housed in enclosed areas called body cavities. They are organized into two groups namely the posterior or dorsal body cavity and the anterior or ventral cavity. The posterior body cavity has the cranial cavity containing the brain and the vertebral cavity containing the spinal cord while the anterior cavity has the thoracic cavity containing the lungs (each lung is enclosed in its own pleural cavity), the pericardial cavity containing the heart and the abdominopelvic cavity containing the digestive organs, the bladder and the reproductive organs. The digestive organs are housed in the abdominal cavity while the bladder and the reproductive organs are housed in the pelvic cavity.

There are also regional terms used in the identification of specific body areas such as the axial region referring to the main axis of the body that is, the head, neck and trunk. The arms and legs are identified by the appendicular region referring to the appendages whereas the nasal region identifies the nose.

There are also directional terms which are used to describe the position of one body part in relation to another part and the terms include;

· Superior meaning an organ is above another organ or body part while inferior means one structure is below the other. e.g. the heart is inferior to the brain.

· Anterior or ventral means the structure is in the front of the other in the body while posterior or dorsal is the opposite.

· Medial means structure is in the midline of the body. e.g. the nose is medial to the eyes. Lateral means the structure is away from the midline of the body for example the ears are said to be lateral to the nose.

· Ipsilateral means the structures lie on the same side of the body whereas contralateral is the opposite.

· Intermediate means the structure lies in between two structures. E.g. the knee is intermediate to the upper and lower legs.

· Proximal is used to show the structure is close to the point where a limb is attached whereas distal means it is far from the point of attachment. We can say the elbow is proximal to the wrist but the foot is distal to the knee.

· Superficial means the structure lies toward to the surface of the body while deep shows it is away from the surface.

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